CAFR School: What Is A Commingled Fund?

It is very seldom that I rant wildly to a still camera with a stuffed bunny watching, but this was just one of those days…

This is a CAFR lesson in government “mutual” funds – called Commingled Funds. Enjoy!

Sorry for the spelling error… gotta quit trying to do so much in such a hurry!

By the way… I suppose government actually pays for “dishonored” bad checks with taxpayer money, and allows the banks to charge them for these bad checks written by taxpayers/debtors. My mistake.

–Clint Richardson (
–Friday, October 7th, 2011

Lethal Injection: The Story Of Vaccination

Finally, I have finished this movie. Please watch, download, re-post, pass out, and spread this as much as you can. No permission needed from me. This is public domain!

Congressman Confirms: United States Is A “Corporation”

Junior Tea Party Congressman Allen West makes a huge confession: “…the President is the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of this corporation called the United States of America”.

Confession at 4:50 in video:

Hero? Or untrained employee of the “corporation”?

You decide…

Learn more about The Corporation Nation here:


–Clint Richardson (
Monday, August 1st, 2011



STRAWMAN Makes First Physical Appearance On Television!

As if the government of Ontario, Canada is trying to flip its middle finger to the people of Ontario, the government came out with this “public service” commercial depicting the “legal persons” of Ontario being contracted with the government by their STRAWMAN name!

From a birth certificate to an I.D Card to a Driver’s License to a Marriage License to a Home contract and a change of address form, this is one of the most perfect representations of what a STRAWMAN would look like if it were a living, breathing entity like the people it sucks the blood of.

The theme of this delightful ditty: The government serves the people by forcing them to contract with the government in every aspect of their lives!

You want to explain the STRAWMAN to somebody? This is a perfect visual aid! And official too!!!

See the commercial here:

Sorry, I couldn’t figure out how to embed this one…


–Clint Richardson (
–Wednesday, July 20, 2011

CAFR Confession

A friend and listener to our local AM station took our interview with the mayor of Salt Lake County, where he admits to the county CAFR and over $650 million in extra fund balances. He also included the CAFR pages I read from as reference.

Though I already posted the interview (audio only), I feel like this is the most important public official confession as to the wealth of the government as shown in government’s financial statements.

Please pass this on…

Also, learn more about government Comprehensive Annual Financial Reports (CAFR’s) with CAFR School, here:

Part 1: The State of Wisconsin CAFR –

Part 2: Introduction to CAFR – City of Aurora, Co –

Part 3: Advanced study – State of Minnesota CAFR –

Now compare these to your own local, county state, and school district CAFR’s.


–Clint Richardson (
–Tuesday, July 12, 2011





CAFR School Part 2: Minnesota’s State CAFR Explained

Welcome back to CAFR School!

Part 2 will be a more advanced look into the CAFR. In this case, the state CAFR.

This is an explanation of the State of Minnesota Comprehensive Annual Financial Report (CAFR), for fiscal year ending June 30, 2010. This is the basic set up of most state CAFR’s. Most terms are the same throughout government financial reporting.

The report can be viewed here:

Or, you can download the Minnesota CAFR from the states own website, here:

(Most of my comments are in red.) – Please follow along in the Minnesota CAFR. This article will not make much sense and you wont figure out how to read these things for yourself if you don’t follow along!

And now, on with the show…


(Page 9) – Government-Wide Net Assets as listed (not including many funds and “off-balance sheet” investments and monies, as we will discuss further).

Financial Highlights

The assets of the state exceeded liabilities at June 30, 2010, by $10.9 billion (presented as net assets). Of this amount, a deficit of $2.9 billion was reported as unrestricted net assets.

(Note that this is showing only what the Minnesota government outrageously considers liabilities. But these are inevitably future liabilities. This means they are deducting monies as liabilities for things that have not been spent/paid yet. It is a trick that makes it appear that the government is not wealthy. For perspective… If you have $2,000 in your bank account today, do you write in your checking register (your own personal CAFR) that you have already spent money that you haven’t even written a check for yet, for liabilities and future bills that you might not have to pay for until 6 months to 10 years later? No!!!) 

From the CAFR…

Unrestricted net assets represents the amount available to the state to meet ongoing obligations to citizens and creditors. However, many of the resources have internally imposed designations, such as state statutory language, which limit resource use. These assets are not reported as restricted net assets because the limitations are imposed internally by the state, not externally imposed by sources such as creditors or the constitution. For discussion on the variances from prior year, see the Government-wide Financial Analysis section.

§ The state’s total net assets decreased by $1.2 billion (9.9 percent) during fiscal year 2010. Net assets of governmental activities decreased by $761 million (7.5 percent), while net assets of the business-type activities showed a decrease of $439 million (22.6 percent). For discussion on the variances from prior year, see the Government-wide Financial Analysis section.

(So the State claims that it is in the red here by over 2 billion dollars on its “government-wide {on-balance sheet}” statements. Let’s see how many hidden “off-balance sheet” investment funds we can find…)

Fund Level

§ At the end of the current fiscal year, governmental funds reported a combined ending fund balance of $2.8 billion, a decrease of $774 million compared to the prior year. Included in the ending fund balance is a General Fund unassigned deficit of $1.5 billion. For discussion on the variances from prior year, see the State Funds Financial Analysis section.

(But what about the other funds besides these governmental funds? Let’s see…)


(Page 7) – Fund and Component Unit Definitions:

The state’s three discretely presented major component units are:

§ Housing Finance Agency

§ Metropolitan Council

§ University of Minnesota

The state’s six nonmajor component units are combined into a single column for reporting in the fund financial statements. These nonmajor component units are:

§ Agricultural and Economic Development Board

§ National Sports Center Foundation

§ Office of Higher Education

§ Public Facilities Authority

§ Rural Finance Authority

§ Workers’ Compensation Assigned Risk Plan

(We will come back to these later…)


State Fund and Component Unit Financial Statements (definition of a “fund”)

A fund is a grouping of related self-balancing accounts used to maintain control over resources that have been segregated for specific activities or objectives. The state of Minnesota, like other state and local governments, uses fund accounting to ensure and demonstrate compliance with finance-related legal requirements.

Fund financial statements present financial information in a format familiar to experienced users of governmental financial statements and reports. The fund financial statements focus on individual parts of the state, reporting the state’s operations in more detail than in the government-wide statements. Fund financial statements focus on the most significant funds within the state.

(Only experienced financial experts can read these reports… or angry citizens with nothing to lose like me!)

The state’s funds are divided into three categories:

Governmental Funds

Governmental funds record most of the basic services provided by the state and account for essentially the same functions as reported in the governmental activities in the government-wide financial statements. Unlike the government-wide financial statements, the fund financial statements focus on how money flows in and out of the funds during a fiscal year and spendable resources available at the end of the fiscal year.

Governmental funds are accounted for using the modified accrual basis of accounting, which recognizes revenues when they are available and measurable. Expenditures are generally recognized in the accounting period when the fund liability is incurred, if measurable. This approach is known as the flow of current financial resources measurement focus. These statements provide a detailed short-term view of the state’s finances that assists in determining whether there are more or less resources available and whether these financial resources will be adequate to meet the current needs of the state. Governmental funds include the General, special revenue, capital project, Debt Service, and Permanent funds.

The focus of governmental funds is narrower than that of the government-wide financial statements. It is useful to compare the information presented for governmental funds with similar information presented for governmental activities in the government-wide financial statements. By comparing this financial financing decisions.

The basic financial statements include a reconciliation of governmental funds to governmental activities.

These reconciliations follow the governmental funds balance sheet and the governmental funds statement of revenues, expenditures, and changes in fund balances.

The state maintained 29 individual governmental funds. However, six of these funds were either moved to the General Fund or combined into another fund and one fund was split and a portion of the activity was moved to the General Fund as a result of implementing Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) Statement No. 54, “Fund Balance Reporting and Governmental Fund Type Definitions.”

(So these funds can used and merged in any way that these government crooks see fit.)

Information is presented separately in the governmental funds balance sheet and in the governmental funds statement of revenues, expenditures, and changes in fund balances for the General and Federal funds, which are reported as major funds. Information from the remaining funds is combined into a single, aggregated column. Individual fund data for each of these nonmajor governmental funds is provided in the form of combining statements included in this report.

(So they don’t report a major portion of the funds, investments, and wealth in the financial statements published to the taxpayers.)

The state adopts a biennial budget with annual appropriations for the majority of the activity reported in the General Fund. A budgetary comparison statement has been provided for the General Fund activity with appropriations included in the biennial budget to demonstrate compliance with this budget.

Proprietary Funds

When the state charges customers for the services it provides, whether to outside customers or to other agencies within the state, these services are generally reported in proprietary funds. Proprietary funds (enterprise and internal service) utilize accrual accounting which is the same method used by private sector businesses. Proprietary fund financial statements provide the same type of information as the government-wide financial statements, only in more detail.

Enterprise funds, a type of proprietary fund, are used to report activities that provide goods and services to outside (non-government) customers, including the general public. Internal service funds are an accounting device used to accumulate and allocate costs internally for goods and services provided by one program of the state to another. Because the activities reported by internal service funds predominantly benefit governmental functions rather than business-type functions, the internal service funds have been included within governmental activities in the government-wide financial statements.

(Enterprise funds are businesses run by the government, and citizens (the general public) are considered nothing more than outside customers!)

(Also, note that it tells us here that only certain funds, in this case the “internal service funds” are reported to the taxpayers; the general public. Make no mistake, government is a for-profit business and the people are just the customers… or chattel!) 

The state maintains 17 individual proprietary funds. The State Colleges and Universities and Unemployment Insurance funds, both of which are considered major funds, are presented separately in the proprietary funds statement of net assets and in the proprietary funds statement of revenues, expenses, and changes in net assets. Information from the 8 nonmajor enterprise funds and the 7 internal service funds are combined into two separate aggregated columns. Individual fund data for each of these nonmajor proprietary funds is provided in the form of combining statements presented in this report.

Fiduciary Funds

Fiduciary funds are used to report activities when the state acts as a trustee or fiduciary to hold resources for the benefit of parties outside the state. The accrual basis of accounting is used for fiduciary funds and is similar to the accounting used for proprietary funds. The government-wide statements exclude fiduciary fund activities and balances because these assets are restricted in purpose and cannot be used by the state to finance its operations. The state must assure that the assets reported in fiduciary funds are used for their intended purposes.

The state maintains 21 individual fiduciary funds. The state’s fiduciary funds are the pension trust funds, the investment trust funds (which account for the transactions, assets, liabilities, and fund equity of the external investment pools), and the Agency Fund (which accounts for the assets held for distribution by the state as an agent for other governmental units, other organizations, or individuals). Individual fund detail is included in the combining financial statements included in this report.

Component Units

Component units are legally separate organizations for which the state is financially accountable. The government-wide financial statements present information for the component units in a single column on the statement of net assets. Also, some information on the statement of changes in net assets is aggregated for component units. The component units’ statements of net assets and statement of changes in net assets provide detail for each major component unit and aggregate the detail for nonmajor component units. Individual nonmajor component unit detail can be found in the combining financial statements included in this report.

(Remember… there is no real law that states these funds cannot be used for anything at all, and they can be transferred or even closed at any time, and the money transferred to other funds or to who knows where!)


(Page 66) – Investments

The State Board of Investment (SBI) manages the majority of the state‟s investments. All investments undertaken by SBI are governed by the standards codified in Minnesota Statutes, Chapters 11A and 356A. Minnesota Statutes, Section 11A.24, broadly restricts investments of the primary government to obligations and stocks of United States and Canadian governments, their agencies and registered corporations, other international securities, short-term obligations of specified high quality, restricted participation as a limited partner in venture capital, real estate, or resource equity investments, and restricted participation in registered mutual funds.

Funds not invested by SBI are primarily Minnesota State Colleges and Universities‟ funds…

SBI is authorized to establish, and has established, combined investment funds used by participating public retirement and non-retirement funds. Retirement and non-retirement funds may not be commingled. Each investment fund has its own characteristics, including investment objective and risk characteristics. Within statutory requirements and based on detailed analysis of each fund, SBI has established investment guidelines and benchmarks for all funds under its management. These investment guidelines and benchmarks are tailored to the particular needs of each fund and specify investment objectives, risk tolerance, asset allocation, investment management structure, and specific performance standards.

(Isn’t it reassuring to know that the SBI is acting within the laws that it sets for itself? Somehow that just makes this theft seem like a gift from God, doesn’t it? I mean, really, as long as the federal and state laws say that the government can steel trillions and trillions of dollars from the taxpayers without any real public disclosure and then hide that money in these funds, all seems right with the world…)

(Note: This is sarcasm. God wouldn’t like this very much, me thinks.)


(Page 66) – Synthetic Guaranteed Investment Contract (SGIC): 

State Board of Investment (SBI) maintains a fully benefit-responsive SGIC for the Supplemental Investment Pool – Fixed Interest Account of the Pension Trust and Investment Trust Funds portfolio. The investment objective of the Fixed Interest Account is to protect investors in defined contribution and deferred compensation plans from loss of their original investment and to provide a competitive interest rate. On June 30, 2010, the SGIC had a portfolio of well diversified high quality investment grade fixed income securities with a fair value of $747,887,000 that is $37,692,000 in excess of the value protected by the wrap contract. The Fixed Income Account also includes a liquid investment pool and a guaranteed investment contract with fair values of $214,955,000 and $326,545,000, respectively.  (Total = $1,289,387,000)

(Note: The author (me) is not sure if this is above and beyond what the state has reported in its Pension Fund Totals, so we won’t include this in our final total of this CAFR wealth. We’ll give it an honorable mention though, for sure! Wouldn’t want to double-count…)


(Page 80 – 82) – Note 5 – Interfund Transactions 

Primary Government

During normal operations, the state processes routine transactions between funds, including loans, expenditures, and transfers of resources for administrative and program services, debt service, and compliance with legal mandates. In the fund financial statements, these transactions are generally recorded as transfers in/transfers out and interfund receivables/payables. Transfers generally represent legally authorized transfers between funds authorized to receive revenue and funds authorized to make expenditures, and do not represent reimbursement of expenditures.

(So monies/investments are allowed to be moved around between funds. They say again here that the –law- says it’s OK to do this. So the question we should be asking our supposedly representative government is… Why don’t you “authorize” or change the legalities (not laws) so that this investment wealth can be used for the benefit of “We, the People” instead of you greedy bankers, attorneys, and politicians? I think that’s a fair question…)



(Now we will list these funds out, and show where the real money is invested…)

(Note: All figures listed in this CAFR are “in thousands”, meaning I have added 3 zeros {,000} to all totals.)


(Page 31)“Major Governmental Funds” descriptions:

–General Fund – the fund accounts for all financial resources except those required to be accounted for in another fund.

–Federal Fund – The fund receives and disburses federal government grants and reimbursements. The fund is administered in accordance with grant agreements between the state and federal agencies.

(page 32) – Total for the General fund as listed on the “GOVERNMENTAL FUNDS BALANCE SHEET” is $3,916,496,000 as of June 30,2010.


(Note: Remember the Statement of Net Assets from above? It stated that, “Included in the ending fund balance is a General Fund unassigned deficit of $1.5 billion”. And yet here we see the actual balance in the fund is over $3.9 billion!!!)

(The Statement of Net Assets also claimed that, “At the end of the current fiscal year, governmental funds reported a combining ending fund balance of $2.8 billion, a decrease of $744 million compared to the prior year”. Obviously, this is a lie, as the balance of just the General Fund is again 3.9 billion!!!)


(page 32) – Total for the Federal fund as listed on the “GOVERNMENTAL FUNDS BALANCE SHEET” is $1,579,194,000 as of June 30,2010.


Note that while “Nonmajor Funds” are listed here too, we will be covering those funds individually in a moment…


(Page 37) – “Major Proprietary Funds” descriptions:

State Colleges and Universities Fund – The fund accounts for the activities of Minnesota State Colleges and Universities (MnSCU). MnSCU is a system of public state universities and two-year colleges and is the largest system of higher education in the state. While the primary activity of MnSCU is to provide educational services, the fund also includes scholarships, student loans, bookstores, student living activities, research, and long-term debt.

Unemployment Insurance Fund – The fund receives unemployment taxes collected from employers and pays unemployment benefits to eligible individuals.

(Page 39) – Total for the State Colleges and Universities Fund as listed on the “STATEMENT OF REVENUES, EXPENSES AND CHANGES IN NET ASSETS” is $1,723,766,000 as of June 30,2010.

(Page 39) – Total for the Unemployment Insurance Fund as listed on the “STATEMENT OF REVENUES, EXPENSES AND CHANGES IN NET ASSETS” is at a negative – $266,135,000 as of June 30,2010.


Note that while “Nonmajor Enterprise Funds” and “Internal Service Funds” are listed here too, we will be covering those funds individually in a moment…


(Page 47)“Major Component Unit Funds” descriptions:

Housing Finance Agency – The agency provides money for loans and technical assistance for construction and rehabilitation of housing for families of low and moderate incomes.

Metropolitan Council – The council is responsible for coordinating the planning and development of the Twin Cities metropolitan area. The council also operates the metropolitan regional sewage treatment and disposal systems and the public transit system. The Metropolitan Sports Facilities Commission, a component unit of the council, operates the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome sports facility. 

University of Minnesota – The multi-campus university provides undergraduate and graduate degrees, advanced research opportunities, and an extension service. The university includes several nonprofit foundations that provide resources which benefit the university.

(Note that these are the funds held by these government for-profit businesses (component units) and are NOT referring to the actual buildings, equipment, or other real assets associated with them. These are stating totals for cash and liquid investments.)

(Page 48) – Total for the Housing Finance Agency Fund as listed on the “STATEMENT OF NET ASSETS” is $1,723,766,000 as of June 30,2010.

(Page 48) – Total for the Metropolitan Council Fund as listed on the “STATEMENT OF NET ASSETS” is $1,872,301,000 as of June 30,2010.

(Page 48) – Total for the University of Minnesota Fund as listed on the “STATEMENT OF NET ASSETS” is $4,785,350,000 as of June 30,2010.


Note that while “Nonmajor Component Unit Funds”  are listed here too, we will be covering those funds individually in a moment…


(Page 125 – 127) – Risk Management Fund – Read this for an explanation of Self-Insurance. This is a fund built to pay for any lawsuits or torts brought against the state or its component units. This is the hoarding and investing of taxpayer dollars. So if you sue the state, you will be receiving taxpayer money or the return on this money from investments in this fund. (Total for this fund presented later as a Nonmajor Enterprise Fund.)


 (Page 131)Budgetary Basis vs. GAAP explanation:

Actual revenues, transfers-in, expenditures, encumbrances, and transfers-out on the budgetary basis do not equal those on the GAAP basis in the Governmental Funds Statement of Revenues, Expenditures and Changes in Fund Balances for the General Fund. This inequality results primarily from the differences in the recognition of accruals, reimbursements, deferred revenue, intrafund transactions, and loan classifications, and from the budgetary basis of accounting for encumbrances. On the budgetary basis, encumbrances are recognized as expenditures in the year encumbered. The modified accrual basis of accounting recognizes expenditures when the goods or services are received, regardless of the year funds are encumbered. A reconciliation of the fund balances under the two basis of accounting for the General Fund is provided in the following table.

(Translation: Some government money and investments are not reported on the taxpayer budget, nor in the Statement of Net Assets we listed above on page 9. There are two different ways of financial reporting, one for the dumbed down masses who can barely balance their checkbook, and one for the elite power brokers in government and the corporate world.)


(Page 142) – Actuarial Measures of Pension Funding Progress

The state of Minnesota is the employer for five defined benefit single employer plans that are administered by Minnesota State Retirement System (MSRS). MSRS prepares and publishes its own stand-alone comprehensive annual financial report (see Note 1 – Summary of Significant Accounting and Reporting Policies for the address).

(Note: When we look at the separate Pension Fund CAFR we see that the “employer” defined here as the State of Minnesota contributes/matches employee contributions to the pension fund system. So the state puts billions of taxpayer money (the state is supported by taxpayer money) into the pension fund for investment with no benefit for the taxpayers.)

The Elective State Officers Fund (ESOF) is excluded from the single employer plan disclosures since this plan is closed to new entrants and any former active employees have retired, terminated, or elected coverage under another plan.

Required supplementary information of funding progress is provided for the following plans:

§ Correctional Employees Retirement Fund (CERF)

§ Judicial Retirement Fund (JRF)

§ Legislative Retirement Fund LRF)

§ State Patrol Retirement Fund (SPRF)




(Page 147 – 151) – Combining and Individual Fund Statements – Nonmajor Funds

Nonmajor Special Revenue, Debt Service, Permanent and Capital Projects Funds


(Note that these are reported “in thousands”, meaning we must add three zero’s {,ooo} to the end of each figure. These are the supposed totals for all the funds included in these categories.)


-> $1,975,916,000


-> $764,447,000


-> $694,452,000


-> $205,002,000


-> $3,639,817,000


(Note that {in thousands} the “Net Change in Fund Balances” column (fourth row from bottom of graph) shows profits/increases of  – $122,913,000 – $22,378,000 – $64,229,000 – and $108,739,000 – with the total profit for these funds listed at $318,259,000. This is how much money was added to these funds in fiscal year 2010 over fiscal year 2009)


(Page 152 – 153)gives a description of each “Special Revenue Fund”

Note the difference between the totals of the chart on (page 154 – 157)NONMAJOR SPECIAL REVENUE FUNDS COMBINING BALANCE SHEET”…


On the “COMBINING BALANCE SHEET” we can see that total fund balances are actually in the amount of $2,719,861,000… a difference of over $700,000,000 as compared to what is reported on the “COMBINING STATEMENT” chart.

(Always go with the higher figure, as again they are attaching future liabilities to the money they have today.)


(Page 169)gives a description of each “Capital Project Fund”

“COMBINING BALANCE SHEET” totals – $253,749,000


So we can add almost $50 million to the total listed, taking the highest figure without “future obligations”. 

(This is the actual holdings at the time of this report.)


(Page 169)gives a description of each “Nonmajor Enterprise Fund”

(Note that this is a new set of funds, not listed above, and including…)

Behavioral Services Fund

Enterprise Activities Fund

Giants Ridge Fund

Minnesota Correctional Industries Fund

911 Services Fund

Public Employees Insurance Fund

State Lottery Fund

State Operated Community Services Fund


(Page 174 – 175) The “COMBINING STATEMENT OF NET ASSETS” {in thousands} chart shows $45,315,000 in these funds under the Totals column. So we can add that to our hidden wealth totals…

(Page 181)gives a description of each Nonmajor Internal Service Fund, which includes the “Risk Management Fund” that we covered above as a self-insurance fund.

(Page 182 – 183) The “COMBINING STATEMENT OF NET ASSETS” {in thousands} chart shows $320,436,000 in total fund balances, which in this case is the same as the COMBINING STATEMENT OF REVENUES, EXPENSES AND CHANGES IN NET ASSETS chart.


PENSION TRUST FUNDS!!! – (Remember, Pension Funds are where the government diverts billions (trillions nationally) of taxpayer money, not just employee money.)

(Page 188 – 189) Minnesota State Retirement System includes… 

–Correctional Employees Retirement Fund

–Elective State Officers Fund

–Hennepin County Supplemental Retirement Fund

–Judicial Retirement Fund

–Legislative Retirement Fund

–Postretirement Health Care Benefits Fund

–State Deferred Compensation Fund

–State Employees Retirement Fund

–State Patrol Retirement Fund 

–Unclassified Employees Retirement Fund 


The Public Employees Retirement Association includes…

–Defined Contribution Fund 

–Minneapolis Employees Retirement Fund 

–Police and Fire Fund 

–Public Employees Correctional Fund

–Public Employees Retirement Fund

–Volunteer Firefighter Retirement Fund


The Teachers Retirement Association includes…

–Teachers Retirement Fund


The State Colleges and Universities includes…

–Colleges and Universities Retirement Fund


(Again, these funds where not included above.)

(Page 190 – 193) COMBINING STATEMENT OF NET ASSETS shows totals for these pension funds listed at $45,746,335,000.

(Page 197) This represents an increase (profit) in the fund balances over 2009 of at least $4,336,688,000.

(Yes, yes… these are the retirement funds and they are designated for the employees. We can’t touch those, right? Again, this fund represents billions and billions of dollars of taxpayer money, and the investment return on these fund’s collective investments. This total shown represents the money and investments in the fund AFTER all liabilities to the employees are paid, and after future liabilities are considered. So you tell me whose money this really is… and before you answer that, consider the fact that at any time the President of the United States can create an Executive Order that states that all collective fund balances in the government pension funds are now the property of the Federal Government. If we don’t reclaim this through strict regulation and anti-federal shields in the name of the people and soon, it will be gone with the stroke of a pen. And all of these state employees who are so defensive of their pension funds now will have nothing left to defend. It will all be gone!)



Supplemental Retirement Fund – The fund provides an investment vehicle for the assets of various public retirement plans and funds.

Investment Trust Fund – The fund provides an investment vehicle for external funds authorized to be invested by the state.

(Page 201) “STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN PLAN NET ASSETS” shows totals for these funds at $482,714,000. 

This is an increase of $30,835,000 over fiscal year 2009, as listed under “Net Increase”.


(Page 203)Agency Funds” description

Agency Fund – This fund accounts for resources held in a custodial capacity for other governmental units, private organizations, or individuals.

Totals listed at $124,220,000


(Page 205)“Nonmajor Component Unit Funds” descriptions…

(Note that this is not the value of the buildings, equipment, and other hard assets involved with these component units {state-run businesses}, these are the funds that each unit has in investment holdings in (liquid) assets and cash.)

Agricultural and Economic Development Board 

National Sports Center Foundation 

Office of Higher Education

Public Facilities Authority

Rural Finance Authority

Workers’ Compensation Assigned Risk Plan


(Page 206 – 207) The “COMBINING STATEMENT OF NET ASSETS” states that the totals for these funds are at $1,488,337,000

(Page 209) “Change in Net Assets” show and increase to these funds of $97,359,000 over fiscal year 2009.


Last but not least, we have…

(Page 83) – Note 6 – Capital Assets:

Primary Government

The following table shows capital asset activity for the primary government:

(Page 83) – See Chart here entitled“Primary Government Capital Asset Activity Government-wide Governmental Activities”

This is the value stated after depriciation for the following “capital assets”, which represents the physical equity in the following:

Land – Buildings, Structures, Improvements – Construction in Progress – Development in Progress – Infrastructure – Easements – Art and Historical Treasures

Total value listed here for these Capital Assets are $11,982,234,000

(Note: that these are not necessarily salable or liquidate-able assets, and so we will not include them in our total below, which will only represent fund, investment, and cash on hand as of June 30, 2010.)




So let’s total up what we have found in the Minnesota CAFR, and compare that total to what the state is reporting to its taxpaying citizens on the taxpayer budget report…

General fund                                                    $3,916,496,000 

Federal fund                                                     $1,579,194,000 

State Colleges and Universities Fund     $1,723,766,000

Unemployment Insurance Fund             (- $266,135,000)

Housing Finance Agency Fund                 $1,723,766,000 

Metropolitan Council Fund                       $1,872,301,000 

University of Minnesota Fund                 $4,785,350,000

Special Revenue Funds                               $2,719,861,000

Capital Projects Funds                                   $253,749,000

Enterprise Funds                                             $320,436,000

Pension Trust Funds                                 $45,746,335,000

Investment Trust Funds                                 $482,714,000

Agency Funds                                                     $124,220,000

Nonmajor Component Unit Funds        $1,488,337,000


TOTAL FUND BALANCES…                   $66,470,390,000



Again, this is a look at the fund balances for the state, and should not be construed as a total look at what this CAFR has to offer in the form of hidden wealth and investments for Minnesota. It would take a guru of an accountant to figure all of this out…

But I think that we have proven without a doubt that the Minnesota state government is guilty of misrepresentation of its wealth to the taxpaying public when it releases its tax-payer budget every year, and when it states in its “government-wide statement of Net Assets” that it only has $10,865,096,000 in “Total Net Assets” including Capital Assets (chart on page 10).

This financial statement (CAFR) structure will look very similar on most state CAFR’s. The order may different, but the terms and fund group types will be virtually identical. You may have to look for this information, but a bit of logic and reason should get you through. The most difficult thing to succeed at is to push aside all of the redundant and pointless information and graphs in lieu of the real hidden gold.

For more information on the corporate government CAFR system, please visit these sites:


Happy treasure hunting to you and yours…


–Clint Richardson (

Wednesday, March 9th, 2011

CAFR School – A Lesson In Financial Accounting

Welcome to CAFR school!

The object of this essay is to teach you to be an informed citizen and taxpayer. We will examine just how to go through your local city, municipal, county, school district, and state government’s Comprehensive Annual Financial Report (CAFR) and come out the other side with millions if not billions of wealth and investments hidden by your government.

I was inspired to write this due to the several requests for myself to help others research and pinpoint their own government’s corruption and hidden wealth.

So here, now, I present to you the CAFR for the city of Aurora, Colorado, a municipal corporation…

First, understand that this report is basically the standard set-up and protocol for the structure of the Annual Reporting system. Therefore, you may apply this same examination to most CAFR’s across the nation and get the same results.

Second, understand that this is just the city (municipal corporation), and does not reflect the county, state, or all of the other incorporated municipal cities and unincorporated towns. it would be necessary to add all of these up to get a total look at the wealth of any county or state.

Also, the school districts and other districts (water, sewer, etc.) will each have a separate CAFR, as they are also not part of the city government (as listed on the CAFR).

That said, I am going to refer to pages on the CAFR report (no particular order, sorry). Remember, we are looking for wealth that could be used for more important things as well as wealth that is not being used for anything at all except capital gains.

You should follow along with me using the Aurora City Comprehensive Annual Financial Report as your reference, which can be downloaded here:

Note posted 09/28/2012: Apparently, the City of Aurora doesn’t like the fact that so many people have been downloading their 2009 CAFR, and so it consolidated past years CAFR’s into one download, which after some research I found here:

And if you like, you can follow along with your local or county CAFR as well, making the adjustments for size and page numbers as you go. Your CAFR should be virtually identical in its structure to this one. If it is not, the key points we are about to cover will be in there somewhere.

(CLUE: Use the “search” function in your (.pdf) or document reader.)

To search for your own local, county, school district, or state CAFR, there are two options…

1) Type your city/county/state/district into your search engine, followed by the words “Comprehensive Annual Financial Report”, followed by the year. (Note that some governments take their sweet time getting these reports out, and so only the previous year may be available for download.) Also, be sure to spell the CAFR phrase out in full.

EXAMPLE:    (Aurora City Comprehensive Annual Financial Report 2009)

2) Go to your city/county/state/district (.gov) website and look for the word “Publications” or the phrase “Financial Statements” or “Annual Reports“. If these aren’t easily found (which not surprisingly they aren’t), most .gov sights have a search option. Be sure and get the CAFR if possible, as the “citizens guide” and the other budget reports are not the full report. Sometimes they are called “Annual Reports” or “Financial Statements” as well, but the majority are called the “CAFR”.

Ok, on to the Aurora City CAFR…

Page 148-150“Golf Fund”

It is very common to hold wealth in these types of funds. Golf courses are owned by local and sometimes other state governments. These are often referred to as business activities in the CAFR statement of liabilities and assets, but are called “Enterprise Operations” in the government circles.

Page 148 – (INCREASE (DECREASE)IN NET ASSETS) – Note that the CAFR reports a loss in assets for this golf fund of $219,398 for 2009. But remember that the CAFR is an accumulative look at assets, and so the fund has more money in it than it did in 2006. In 2007, it earned $389,119.

Page 148 – (NON-OPERATING EXPENSES) – INVESTMENT INCOME, MISCELLANEOUS REVENUE, ETC. – the money in this fund isn’t just sitting there, it is being invested. Thus, “Investment Income” is listed. “Non-Operating Expenses” refer to items happening outside of the care and budgetary obligations of the golf courses. This investment game is why the fund is showing a negative year of $219,398. These types of (+/-) listing of revenue and assets are very deceiving, as we cannot see in this CAFR how the money is invested, what is transferred out of this fund and into other funds, or the day to day investment activity.

Make no mistake, golf courses are businesses that are making profits for the government and for (municipal) corporations.

Net Assets in the “Golf Fund” as of December 31, 2009 $24,927,256

Page 144 – 147“Waste Water Fund”

Once again, the management of water and sewage type of “business activities” are not only a profitable business (and a government monopoly for that matter, and often sold to private corporations to manage under government control), but also have funds created to build a power base of investment wealth.

Page 144Statement of Net Assets for Waste Water Fund – NET ASSETS – DECEMBER 2009 – show that this fund alone has $430,862,335 in wealth, that could be used for other taxpayer budgetary obligations. But as we can see, the INVESTMENT INCOME for this fund is quite nice, at $4,363,954 for fiscal year 2009. About 15 million for the last three years.

This fund grew by $20.89 million (INCREASE IN NET ASSETS) in 2009, even after (TRANSFERS OUT) of over $10 million.

Also, this fund has grown steadily for the last 5 years, from $305 million in 2005, to over $430 million in 2009. Again, the CAFR is the cumulative look at government wealth and investment income. The taxpayer budget released to the people is not.

Net Assets in the “Waste Water Fund” as of December 31, 2009 $430,862,335

Page 137 – 143“Water Fund”

This is the drinking water fund. Similarly with the other funds, this is money that could be used for other purposes. In this case, we start to see the vast wealth the city is hiding within these funds…

Page 137Changes in Net Assets for Water Fund – NET ASSETS – DECEMBER 2009 – show total monies for this fund at $944,082,042 – That’s almost $1 billion dollars for just this fund alone!!!

Again, this fund is investing the money, and shows investment income (return on investments) of over $11 million.

Net assets increased over 2008 totals by $62,555,533 (INCREASE IN NET ASSETS = Profit).

And since December 31, 2005, this fund has grown by over $322 million dollars!!!

Page 140 – Note that the city lists here its top water consumers (TEN LARGEST TREATED WATER CUSTOMERS). If you think about it carefully, you will see how smooth of a business these municipal corporations have carved out for themselves. The “city” is the city’s largest water consumer. But it doesn’t pay for its own water consumption… the taxpayers do! It bills itself, and deducts the bill from taxpayer funds!!! Brilliant.

Come on, you gotta give these guys points for creativity, right?

Net Assets in the “Water Fund” as of December 31, 2009 $944,082,042

Page 135 – 136 – Exhibit C3 (General, TABOR, and Policy Reserve Funds)

Take a quick look at this graph. It gives you an idea of how much the city receives compared to what it has written as the budgetary requirement for what these particular funds service. This shows net assets for the General Fund, the TABOR Reserve Fund, and Policy Reserve Funds

Page 136 FUNDS AVAILABLE DECEMBER 31 (2009) – Look at how the “budget” section is lower than the “actual” section for each year by millions of dollars. In other words, they had money left over, which of course they either reinvest or use elsewhere, or transfer out of the fund (intra-fund transfers notated as due from other funds).

Page 136FUND BALANCE (for these three funds) – At the end of fiscal year 2009 the fund balance was $52,245,924. Again, money available to be spent on taxpayers.

Page 135EXCESS OF REVENUES OVER EXPENDITURES – This states that monies collected (revenues) from the taxpayers in the form of tax, fees, fines, etc… were $24,319,789 more than what was spent. In other words, taxpayers spent way to much money for the services that their government provided, and that money is not refunded back to the taxpayers. Instead, it is placed into these funds we are going over.

Net Assets in the “General Fund”, the “TABOR Reserve Fund”, and the “Policy Reserve Fund” as of December 31, 2009 $52,245,924


Just throwing this in as a comparative essay, comparing government wealth to the wealth and income of the people of the city.

2009 population of city – 314,326

2009 combined income of city’s population – $4,331,333,727

2009 unemployment rate – 7.5%

We will come back to these figures at the end of this essay…

Page 96“Enterprise Funds”

Just a note that the golf and water funds are called “Enterprise Funds”.

Legal Dictionary
Main Entry: en·ter·prise
Pronunciation: 'en-t&r-"prIz
Function: noun : an economic organization or activity; especially : a business organization
5. a company organized for commercial purposes; business firm.
World English Dictionary:
enterprise (ˈɛntəˌpraɪz) [Click for IPA pronunciation guide]
1. a project or undertaking, esp one that requires boldness or effort
2. participation in such projects
3. readiness to embark on new ventures; boldness and energy
4. a. initiative in business
b. ( as modifier ): the enterprise culture
5. a business unit; a company or firm


The city actually has two pension funds.

General Employees Retirement Fund (GERP) – is listed at $280,221,050 in investment assets.

Elected Official’s and Executive Personal Defined Benifit Plan Fund is listed at $3,675,975 in investment assets.

Total monies stashed away in city pension funds – $283,897,025.

Remember, this is extra money in the fund, after all benefits were paid for 2009. This is the investment wealth. Employees have no equity in this money, as it is a private corporate government fund. If Aurora declares bankruptcy or a host of other ploys, this money will be liquidated, and none of that will be returned to the employees or the taxpayers who have been “contributing” it over the years.

A contribution is the act of giving your money away.

Employee contributions totaled – $4,795,873

City of Aurora (taxpayer money to “match”) contributions – $4,790,713

Pension funds are the scam of all scams, and the government employees have been duped into defending them with their souls, not comprehending that it isn’t even their money anymore, once they contribute it to the fund!!!

Taxpayer money is being redirected into these funds at an alarming rate. Some pension funds are called “non-contributory” funds, which means that only the government (taxpayer money) is funding the pension. Employees do not contribute to these funds.

Net Assets in the “Pension Trust Funds” as of December 31, 2009 $283,897,025

Page 71 -73 Internal Service Funds

More funds…

Page 72Statement of changes in net assets – We see the total for the following (3) Internal Service Funds listed as:

Fleet Management Fund
Print Shop Fund
Risk Management Fund

Totals for these funds are stated as $8,112,000

Again, this could be used for other things. The shell game continues…

Net Assets in the “Internal Service Funds” as of December 31, 2009 $8,112,000

Page 60 – 70Non-Major Governmental Funds

These are funds which are used to store revenue before it is spent, and to house that extra revenue that is not spent, and to transfer to other funds and liabilities (usually profitable ones).

They include Special Revenue Funds, Debt Service Funds, and Capital Projects Funds. Read the descriptions of each to get an idea of what they are used for starting on page 60-61.

(Fund balances can be found listed on page 66 – 70, in the chart called COMBINING STATEMENT OF REVENUES, EXPENDITURES AND CHANGES IN FUND BALANCES” for Nonmajor Governmental Funds.)

SPECIAL REVENUE FUNDS – account for revenues from specific sources that are required legally or by management decision to be used for particular activities.

Gifts and Grants Fund

-> $4,985,909

Development Review Fund

-> $2,082,719

Abatement Fund

-> $1,244,185

Community Development Fund

-> $2,669,399

Enhanced E-911 Fund

-> $5 ,414,600

Conservation Trust Fund

-> $8,585,532

Emergency Contingency Fund

-> $241,172

Parks Development Fund

-> $4,202,949

Arapahoe County Open Space Fund

-> $8,841,223

Recreation Services Fund

-> $171,374

Cultural Services Fund

-> $971,000

Designated Revenues Fund

-> $19,983,620

Policy Reserve Fund

-> $21,332,318

TABOR Reserve Fund

-> $8,778,851

Cherry Creek Fence General Improvement District (GID)

-> $18,095

Aurora Urban Renewal Authority (AURA) General Fund –

-> $71,673

DEBT SERVICE FUNDS – account for the accumulation of resources to pay principal, interest and agency fees on governmental long-term debt.

City Debt Service Fund

-> $1,628,854

Special Improvement District (SID) Debt Service Fund

-> $2 96,371

Surplus and Deficiency Fund

-> $596,081

Aurora Urban Renewal Authority (AURA) Debt Service Fund

-> $1,357,231

Aurora Capital Leasing Corporation (ACLC) Debt Service Fund

-> $17,434,872

CAPITAL PROJECTS FUNDS – Capital Projects Funds are generally used on construction projects, restoration of infrastructure and buildings, etc… But it is important to understand that these funds are being invested. They can sit around for years before the actual project they are “funding” even gets started. Again, they are places to store revenue (taxpayer collections) while making a profit by investing that money. Evil.

City Capital Projects Fund

-> $23,525,670

Bond Proceeds Fund

-> $0.00

Building Repair Fund

-> $1,562,600

Aurora Capital Leasing Corporation (ACLC) Capital Projects Fund

-> $0.00

Page 70 – Fund Balances December 31, 2009 – After listing all of these funds out in detail under the NONMAJOR GOVERNMENTAL FUNDS STATEMENT OF REVENUES, EXPENDITURES AND CHANGES IN FUND BALANCES FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2009, and listed as “Total Nonmajor Governmental”, we see that some are in the positive and some in the negative. But we can see that these funds added together total $135,996,298.

Page 70 – NET CHANGE IN FUND BALANCES – Here we can see that in total, as a collective fund balance, these funds grew by $9,756,515 in 2009, which was considered a bad year for investments and government budgets.

***Note: It is likely that much of these “non-major governmental funds” are actually designated for specific budgetary items, and the government will tell you this to keep you from claiming that they are hoarding the money in these funds. But in reality, there is no law or contract written for most of these funds that require that money to be used for the purposes they claim. Thus, they can close the fund at any time, not use it for its intended purpose, and/or transfer that money to other funds for their own investment fun! This will be a big debate by the government officials that you approach about using these funds for the benefit of the taxpayers. Do not let them get away with this. Ask them for the specific law or contract that proves their claim. Threaten them with treason and lying under oath, and be sure and film your encounter so that you have a record of their lies. Make them prove everything they say by backing it up with code or law. Good times…

You can read about restricted net assets on page 36.

Page 59General Fund Balance – This just states that the general fund has an extra $22,143,755, which was not used in the taxpayer’s interest to meet budgetary requirements for this year. This is a surplus in tax dollars collected.

Page 52RISK MANAGEMENT/CONTINGENT LIABILITIES – Just an explanation of how the money placed into funds is invested with the intent to pay for future obligations, in this case lawsuits. Read this entire paragraph a couple of times for your enjoyment and comprehension…

Also, know that many activities funded by government, including pensions, are actually paid for by the returns from investments by these funds! They even have a fund to pay for “self-insurance” of up to $1,000,000. This means that the city covers their employees with the investment return on some fund somewhere that makes at least a $1,000,000 in profit. And I suppose they transfer money from other funds when there is a bad year. I don’t believe Aurora is one of those cities, because it has a law which limits lawsuit amounts to $150,000 per person and $600,000 per incident. So private insurance from a carrier is better for the city, according to its managers. But that means that the people of this municipality are out of luck if their claim/lawsuit against the “city” is for more than this law allows for. Tyranny at it’s finest, with state laws that prevent a citizen from collecting proper damages from the private government corporation that caused their loss.

Simply stated… This and most other cities, counties, and states have funds for which they stash away and invest taxpayer money called “Risk Management Funds”. This is the money that is used to pay for lawsuits and other damages that are caused to the citizens (taxpayers) within that particular corporate government.

So the taxpayers are suing themselves when they sue the city, and can only acquire the money that is hiding in this fund for the protection of the city.

Lawsuits are paid for by the investment return on this fund! Brilliant!!!


Here is the list of actual pension funds offered by the municipality (city). They are bulked into the funds discussed earlier.

The city of Aurora provides the following plans:

-General Employees’ Retirement Plan (GERP)
-Elected Officials’ and Executive Personnel Defined Benefit Plan (EOEP)
-Fire Pension Plan (Old Hire-Fire)
-Police Pension Plan (Old Hire-Police)
-Other Postemployment Benefits (OPEB)
-Fire Department Money Purchase Pension Plan (New Hire-Fire)
-Police Department Money Purchase Pension Plan (New Hire-Police)
-Executive Retirement Plan – Money Purchase Pension Plan (ERP)

Imagine, this is happening all over the country, in every state, county, municipality, district, etc… Each one being funded with taxpayer dollars at least equal to employee dollars, and sometimes up to 7000% more than what the employees are putting in themselves! And some are solely funded by taxpayer money!!!

Walter Burien has estimated that Pension Funds across the country account for $26 trillion dollars.

And none of that belongs to the people or to the employees of the government! A simple Presidential Directive, Executive Order, or the false-flag bankruptcy of a state government, and these funds are gone forever…

Page 37Restricted for Arbitrage – Very Important!!!!

Federal tax law provides that, with the exception of certain “temporary periods”, governments may not invest the proceeds of tax-exempt debt in a higher yielding taxable security. Arbitrage occurs if a government earns more than the yield allowed by law. Excess arbitrage earnings must be rebated to the Federal government. All outstanding bonds and COPs are reviewed annually for potential arbitrage rebate liability and corresponding reserves are established as necessary.

Arbitrage amounts anticipated to be paid with funds held in the City Debt Service Fund – $33,569.

This simply means that when the state, county, city, pension fund, and districts invest their money into certain investments, and then make what you might call an accidental or illegal profit above and beyond what is expected due to a glitch in the market system, that money must be given to the Federal government! This is cheating by the way, taking advantage of a mistake to make a profit – for instance buying and then immediately selling a stock or a currency for a profit that is an error, and will eventually just hurt the rest of the market, which must make up for that mistake somehow. Hard to explain, but the point is that governments across the country all do this, collectively making a fortune for the Federal Government, who does not complain about it much… instead forcing by law that this arbitrage profit be handed over to them! Crime of the century if you ask me…

This is an called an arbitrage profit.

Now imagine every government in the country, more than 185,000, acquiring wealth of this nature and sending it to the Fed…

Here is a good basic definition of arbitrage:


Just read this section, as it is just telling us that the city has the “right” by state law (CODE) to invest, and it lists well over $1 billion in investments, much of which we have already covered.

Of course, all investments are not covered. The city makes loans and writes bonds for projects both within and outside of the city. This is listed as a liability, but will of course be an asset when the loan or bond is paid off.

Often the city will put cash in the bank, float a bond off of that cash, invest the money that is still in the bank being used as collateral for the bond, and then charge taxpayers for the debt service of the bond, while making investment profit on the cash that is still in the bank that the bond was backed by.

That’s the shell game…

Page 19 COMPONENT UNITS, Statement of net assets

The city is a business…

These are the side businesses or “joint-ventures” that the city is involved in.

Add an extra $76,611,082 in assets, over $33,000,000 of which is cash and liquid investments (stocks, etc…).



And finally, last and actually least, we have the “Management’s Discussion and Analysis”.

This is a very basic statement, which does not include the majority of the wealth that we have uncovered in this report. Here is the Financial Highlights section on page MD&A1(Managers Discussion & Analysis). This is the CAFR for dummies, and is very deceiving because it includes buildings, vehicles, etc… While these are assets, they are not necessarily able to be “liquidated” like the stocks and other investments in the funds. It does include some of the assets we have talked about, but definitely not all by a long shot, since some funds are not required to be reported in this section, like “non-governmental funds”.

But even so, we can see that the city of Aurora is a very wealthy city. The CAFR States…

“The city’s assets exceeded liabilities at the end of 2009 by $4.3 billion (net assets). Of this amount, $362.4 million, or 8.4% was UNRESTRICTED and may be used to meet the city’s ongoing obligations.”

***Note: This is of course seriously and criminally misleading… as we have uncovered over $900 million in just the “Water Fund”, remember?

“Citywide net assets increased $89.4 million in 2009.”

This is why you must not stop at this section of the report, which of course is always the first section of the CAFR. It is the first false signpost you must see past to get an accurate accounting of your governments wealth and investment totals as reflected in the fund balances shown later in the report.

At best, this first section can be used to see capital assets (land, buildings, vehicles, etc…) that are owned by the city, and to see the taxes collected and spent. This is part of what is reported on the “Taxpayer Budget” every year to the people, which invariably always shows a “deficit”.

Obviously, this just isn’t the case. The CAFR never lies…

Well, sometimes!

So let’s add up just what we have uncovered here in these funds and investments:

Golf Fund =                                     $24,927,256

Waste Water Fund =                $430,862,335

Water Fund =                             $944,082,042

General, TABOR Reserve,
and Policy Reserve Funds =     $52,245,924

Pension Trust Funds =            $283,897,025

Internal Service Funds =             $8,112,000

Non-Governmental Funds =  $135,996,298 (This includes the TABOR and Policy Reserve Funds, so – $8,778,851 and $21,332,318 totaling $30,111,169.)
+                                                  So… — $30,111,169   
TOTAL FUND BALANCES = $1,850,011,711

So, total fund balances which can be used or liquidated to be used for the taxpayer’s benefit = $1.85 billion

In retrospect, the population of this town as stated on the CAFR above is 314,326 people.

$1.85 billion equates to the government holding about $5,885 in cash for each person in the “city”, not including the other assets included in the $4.3 billion stated in the total assets statement (buildings, land, vehicles, etc…).

But these folks are also being taxed by the county, the school district, and the state government. So there is a whole other can of worms…

Also, the CAFR is a cumulative accounting of government wealth, not just one year. So as a comparison, just these fund balances (not including capital assets as listed in the “Financial Analysis”) also represent about 40% of the total income earned in 2009 by the entire population of the city!

——————————End Of Report——————————-

Now, I am no financial expert, so there is much more to these reports than I can tell you here – secrets way too deep for my newly trained eye. And if you go far enough back, you will find “discrepancies” and wonder just what happened to all that money! There are certainly other wealth bases and investments that are eluding me as well. But this is a classic example of most municipalities and counties across the nation.

And remember this is just the city, not the county or districts within, which each have their own separate funds, investments, and report on a separate CAFR. And the state has it’s own government and CAFR as well, for which you pay your taxes to.

I hope that this helps you in your efforts to understand and read the legalese that is the Comprehensive Annual Financial Report. May this be your guide.

And remember…

None are more hopelessly enslaved than those who falsely believe they are free.” –Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Keep up the good fight!


For more information on CAFR’s, please go to these websites:

— (R.I.P. Our hero, Gerald R. Klatt)



-Clint Richardson (

Thursday, March 3rd, 2011